FreeBSD 4.11 manual page repository

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test, [ - condition evaluation utility

 

NAME

      test, [ - condition evaluation utility
 

SYNOPSIS

      test expression
      [ expression ]
 

DESCRIPTION

      The test utility evaluates the expression and, if it evaluates to true,
      returns a zero (true) exit status; otherwise it returns 1 (false).  If
      there is no expression, test also returns 1 (false).
 
      All operators and flags are separate arguments to the test utility.
 
      The following primaries are used to construct expression:
 
      -b file       True if file exists and is a block special file.
 
      -c file       True if file exists and is a character special file.
 
      -d file       True if file exists and is a directory.
 
      -e file       True if file exists (regardless of type).
 
      -f file       True if file exists and is a regular file.
 
      -g file       True if file exists and its set group ID flag is set.
 
      -h file       True if file exists and is a symbolic link.  This operator
                    is retained for compatibility with previous versions of
                    this program.  Do not rely on its existence; use -L
                    instead.
 
      -k file       True if file exists and its sticky bit is set.
 
      -n string     True if the length of string is nonzero.
 
      -p file       True if file is a named pipe (FIFO).
 
      -r file       True if file exists and is readable.
 
      -s file       True if file exists and has a size greater than zero.
 
      -t file_descriptor
                    True if the file whose file descriptor number is
                    file_descriptor is open and is associated with a terminal.
 
      -u file       True if file exists and its set user ID flag is set.
 
      -w file       True if file exists and is writable.  True indicates only
                    that the write flag is on.  The file is not writable on a
                    read-only file system even if this test indicates true.
 
      -x file       True if file exists and is executable.  True indicates only
                    that the execute flag is on.  If file is a directory, true
                    indicates that file can be searched.
 
      -z string     True if the length of string is zero.
 
      -L file       True if file exists and is a symbolic link.
 
      -O file       True if file exists and its owner matches the effective
                    user id of this process.
 
      -G file       True if file exists and its group matches the effective
                    group id of this process.
 
      -S file       True if file exists and is a socket.
 
      file1 -nt file2
                    True if file1 exists and is newer than file2.
 
      file1 -ot file2
                    True if file1 exists and is older than file2.
 
      file1 -ef file2
                    True if file1 and file2 exist and refer to the same file.
 
      string        True if string is not the null string.
 
      s1 = s2       True if the strings s1 and s2 are identical.
 
      s1 != s2      True if the strings s1 and s2 are not identical.
 
      s1 < s2       True if string s1 comes before s2 based on the ASCII value
                    of their characters.
 
      s1 > s2       True if string s1 comes after s2 based on the ASCII value
                    of their characters.
 
      n1 -eq n2     True if the integers n1 and n2 are algebraically equal.
 
      n1 -ne n2     True if the integers n1 and n2 are not algebraically equal.
 
      n1 -gt n2     True if the integer n1 is algebraically greater than the
                    integer n2.
 
      n1 -ge n2     True if the integer n1 is algebraically greater than or
                    equal to the integer n2.
 
      n1 -lt n2     True if the integer n1 is algebraically less than the inte‐
                    ger n2.
 
      n1 -le n2     True if the integer n1 is algebraically less than or equal
                    to the integer n2.
 
      If file is a symbolic link, test will fully dereference it and then eval‐
      uate the expression against the file referenced, except for the -h and -L
      primaries.
 
      These primaries can be combined with the following operators:
 
      ! expression  True if expression is false.
 
      expression1 -a expression2
                    True if both expression1 and expression2 are true.
 
      expression1 -o expression2
                    True if either expression1 or expression2 are true.
 
      (expression)  True if expression is true.
 
      The -a operator has higher precedence than the -o operator.
 
      Some shells may provide a builtin test command which is similar or iden‐
      tical to this utility.  Consult the builtin(1) manual page.
      The test grammar is inherently ambiguous.  In order to assure a degree of
      consistency, the cases described in the IEEE Std 1003.2 (“POSIX.2”), sec‐
      tion D11.2/4.62.4, standard are evaluated consistently according to the
      rules specified in the standards document.  All other cases are subject
      to the ambiguity in the command semantics.
      The test utility exits with one of the following values:
 
      0       expression evaluated to true.
 
      1       expression evaluated to false or expression was missing.
 
      >1      An error occurred.
      builtin(1), expr(1), sh(1), symlink(7)
 

STANDARDS

      The test utility implements a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2 (“POSIX.2”)
      specification.
 

Sections

Based on BSD UNIX
FreeBSD is an advanced operating system for x86 compatible (including Pentium and Athlon), amd64 compatible (including Opteron, Athlon64, and EM64T), UltraSPARC, IA-64, PC-98 and ARM architectures. It is derived from BSD, the version of UNIX developed at the University of California, Berkeley. It is developed and maintained by a large team of individuals. Additional platforms are in various stages of development.